Cohorts

Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC)

The ARIC Study, sponsored by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), is a prospective epidemiologic study conducted in four U.S. communities. ARIC is designed to investigate the etiology and natural history of atherosclerosis, the etiology of clinical atherosclerotic diseases, and variation in cardiovascular risk factors, medical care and disease by race, gender, location, and date. For more, please visit the ARIC Website. Detailed sleep questionnaire and overnight PSG data were collected and are publicly available through the National Sleep Research Resource (NSRR Sleep Heart Health Study).

 

Cardiovascular Health Study

The Cardiovascular Health Study is an NHLBI-funded observational study of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adults 65 years or older. Starting in 1989, and continuing through 1999, participants underwent annual extensive clinical examinations. An additional examination took place in 2005-6. Measurements included traditional risk factors such as blood pressure and lipids as well as measures of subclinical disease, including echocardiography of the heart, carotid ultrasound, and cranial magnetic-resonance imaging. At six month intervals between clinic visits, and once clinic visits ended, participants were contacted by phone to ascertain hospitalizations and health status. The main outcomes are coronary heart disease, angina, heart failure, stroke, transient ischemic attack, claudication, and mortality. Participants continue to be followed for these events. As of June 2011, more than 750 research papers from CHS have been published and more than 120 ancillary studies are ongoing or complete. For more, please visit the CHS website. Sleep questionnaire and overnight PSG data were collected and are publicly available through the National Sleep Research Resource (NSRR Sleep Heart Health Study).

 

Cleveland Family Study

The Cleveland Family Study (CFS) is the largest family-based study of sleep apnea worldwide, consisting of 2,284 individuals (46% African American) from 361 families studied on up to 4 occasions over a period of 16 years. The study was begun in 1990 with the initial aims of quantifying the familial aggregation of sleep apnea. Expansion of the original cohort (including increased minority recruitment) and longitudinal follow-up has been performed, with the last exam occurring in February 2006. Note: Data from CFS Visit 5 (i.e. the last exam) are posted to the National Sleep Research Resource (NSRR Cleveland Family Study). Visit 5 included full overnight PSG. Data from prior CFS visits will be posted in the future.

 

The CoLaus/HypnoLaus Study

The Cohorte Lausannoise (CoLaus) study is a population based study aimed at assessing the prevalence and molecular determinants of cardiovascular risk factors in the population of Lausanne, Switzerland. Participants in the study (n=6188) were randomly selected from the population register of Lausanne in 2003 (N=56,694, aged 35-75 years). The distribution of age groups, sex, and postal codes in CoLaus/HypnoLaus participants was representative of the source population. The participants were mainly of European origin, defined as having both parents and grandparents born in a defined list of European countries. The initial cross sectional study took place between 2003 and 2006, the first follow up between 2009 and 2012, and the third follow up of the entire cohort started in 2014. The HypnoLaus study is based on the first follow-up of the CoLaus cohort during which 5064 individuals underwent a second physical and psychiatric (n=4001) examination and were given questionnaires by trained interviewers. These assessments included questions on their demographic, medical, and treatment history, and smoking and alcohol consumption. Sleep related complaints and habits were investigated using the Pittsburgh sleep quality index, the Epworth sleepiness scale, Horne Ostberg, Munich, Ullanlina and the Berlin questionnaires. Moreover, 2168 participants underwent a full polysomnography at home. For more information, please visit the CoLaus study website.

 

Framingham Heart Study (FHS)

The Framingham Heart Study began in 1948 by recruiting an Original Cohort of 5,209 men and women between the ages of 30 and 62 from the town of Framingham, Massachusetts, who had not yet developed overt symptoms of cardiovascular disease or suffered a heart attack or stroke. Since that time the Study has added an Offspring Cohort in 1971, the Omni Cohort in 1994, a Third Generation Cohort in 2002, a New Offspring Spouse Cohort in 2003, and a Second Generation Omni Cohort in 2003. FHS investigates cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular disease risk factors including diabetes, glucose and insulin levels. Genetic data has been collected as well, and is available on dbGaP in the FHS SHARE Study. For more, please visit the FHS website. Sleep questionnaire and overnight PSG data were collected and are available through the National Sleep Research Resource (NSRR Sleep Heart Health Study).

 

The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) is a study of the characteristics of subclinical cardiovascular disease (disease detected non-invasively before it has produced clinical signs and symptoms) and the risk factors that predict progression to clinically overt cardiovascular disease or progression of the subclinical disease. MESA researchers study a diverse, population-based sample of 6,814 asymptomatic men and women aged 45-84. Approximately 38 percent of the recruited participants are white, 28 percent African-American, 22 percent Hispanic, and 12 percent Asian, predominantly of Chinese descent. Sleep questionnaire and overnight PSG data were collected in an ancillary study.

 

MrOS study

The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study is a multi-center prospective cohort study that was originally designed to study risk factors for vertebral and all non-vertebral fractures in older men. The MrOS study population at the baseline visit that took place from March 2000 to April 2002 consisted of 5,994 community dwelling, ambulatory men aged 65 years or older from six communities in the United States (Birmingham, AL; Minneapolis, MN; Palo Alto, CA; Monongahela Valley near Pittsburgh, PA; Portland, OR; and San Diego, CA). Inclusion criteria were designed to provide a study cohort that is representative of the broad population of older men. The MrOS inclusion criteria were: (1) ability to walk without the assistance of another, (2) absence of bilateral hip replacements, (3) ability to provide self-reported data, (4) residence near a clinical site for the duration of the study, (5) absence of a medical condition that (in the judgment of the investigator) would result in imminent death, (6) ability to understand and sign an informed consent, and (7) 65 years or older. To qualify as an enrollee, the participant had to provide written informed consent, complete the self-administered questionnaire (SAQ), attend the clinic visit, and complete at least the anthropometric, DEXA, and vertebral X-ray procedures. The MrOS cohort recruited only men.  At baseline, participants completed questionnaires regarding medical history, medications, physical activity, diet, alcohol intake, and cigarette smoking. (Orwoll et al., 2005; Blank et al., 2005). The MrOS Sleep Visit was completed between December 2003 and March 2005.  3135 participants completed at least some of the sleep visit.  Sleep questionnaire, overnight PSG, and wrist actigraphy  data were collected in this ancillary study that focuses on understanding the relationship between sleep disorders and falls, fractures, mortality and vascular disease, and are available through the National Sleep Research Resource (NSRR MROS).

 

Study of Osteoporotic Fractures

The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) is a prospective multicenter study of risk factors for vertebral and non-vertebral fractures in older women with 20 years of follow-up (Cummings et al, 1993). The cohort at the baseline visit that took place from 1986 to 1988 consisted of 9,704 community dwelling women 65 years old or older recruited from population-based listings in four U.S. areas: Baltimore, Maryland; Minneapolis, Minnesota; Portland, Oregon; and the Monongahela Valley, Pennsylvania. Women enrolled in the study were 99% Caucasian with African American women initially excluded from the study due to their low incidence of hip fractures. The SOF participants were followed up every four months by postcard or telephone to ascertain the occurrence of falls, fractures and changes in address. To date, follow-up rates have exceeded 95% for vital status and fractures. All fractures are validated by x-ray reports or, in the case of most hip fractures, a review of pre-operative radiographs. The SOF inclusion criteria were: 1) 65 years or older, (2) ability to walk without the assistance of another, (3) absence of bilateral hip replacements, (4) ability to provide self-reported data, (5) residence near a clinical site for the duration of the study, (6) absence of a medical condition that (in the judgment of the investigator) would result in imminent death, and (7) ability to understand and sign an informed consent. To qualify as an enrollee, the participant had to provide written informed consent, complete the self-administered questionnaire (SAQ), attend the clinic visit, and complete at least the anthropometric measures. The SOF study recruited only women. In addition to adjudication of fractures, SOF has tracked cases of incident breast cancer, stroke, and total and cause-specific mortality. The data include serial measures of bone mineral density, measurements of sex and calcitropic hormones, tests of strength and function, cognitive exams, use of medication, health habits and much more. From January 2002 to February 2004, sleep questionnaire, overnight PSG, and wrist actigraphy data were collected from SOF participants and the data are available through sleepdata.org (NSRR SOF).

 

Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP)

The Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) is a population-based epidemiological study consisting of two independent cohorts (SHIP and SHIP-TREND). The SHIP investigates common risk factors, subclinical disorders and manifest diseases with highly innovative non-invasive methods in the high-risk population of northeast Germany. The study is not interested in one specific disease. The SHIP study´s main aims include the investigation of health in all its aspects and complexity involving the collection and assessment of data relevant to the prevalence and incidence of common, population-relevant diseases and their risk factors.For more information, please visit the SHIP Wikipedia site and the SHIP website.

 

Western Australian Sleep Health Study

The main aim of the study is to phenotype 4,000 OSA patients in order to define the genetics of OSA and its co-morbidities. Almost all underwent laboratory-based attended polysomnography (PSG). Currently complete data (questionnaire, biochemistry, DNA, and PSG) have been obtained on over 3,000 individuals. In a separate but related study, we have developed a sleep study database containing data from all patients who have undergone PSG at the sleep laboratory since its inception in 1988 until the present day (over 30,000 PSG studies representing data from approximately 20,000 individuals). In addition, data from both cohorts have been linked prospectively to statutory health data collected by the WA Department of Health. For more information, please see Mukherjee et al., 2012.

 

The Wisconsin Sleep Cohort (WSC)

The Wisconsin Sleep Cohort (WSC) is an ongoing longitudinal study of the causes, consequences and natural history of sleep disorders in adults—particularly sleep apnea—now in its 26th year. Initiated in 1988, the WSC uses overnight in-laboratory sleep studies conducted with a baseline sample of 1500 Wisconsin state employees, assessed at four year intervals. Additional data (not exhaustive) collected on subsets of the cohort include: a 40-minute cognitive test battery (multiple time points); echocardiography (one time point) and vascular imaging; ambulatory blood pressure (multiple time points); blood samples (some stored, multiple time points); gait and balance testing (one time point); general and mental health questionnaires (multiple time points); physical activity questionnaires (multiple time points) and, recently, neuroimaging (one time point). The WSC has been funded by US NIH institutes: Heart, Lung and Blood (NHLBI), Aging (NIA), Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR), among others. For more information, please contact the PI (Paul Peppard, ppeppard@wisc.edu) or Director of Scientific Operations (Erika Hagen, erika.hagen@wisc.edu).